Ar is an aromatic ring which is unsubstituted or substituted with h, ch 3, c 2 h 5, nc 3 h 7, isoc 3 h 7, och 3, c 6 h 11, cl, br, c 6 h 5 or ch 2 c 6 h. Materials for high and low refractive index coatings. High refractive index materials for nanoimprint fiber photonics. Such materials are required for antireflective coating and. The ri of a polymer can be increased by addition of nanoscale hri inorganic semiconductors in the matrix to form nanocomposites. High refractive index nanocomposites corning incorporated. Wilshire technologies offers a range of high quality synthetic and natural products for kilolab, pilot and commercial development in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics and specialty chemicals industries.
Distinguished by its total focus on low refractive index ri1. Higractiveindex polymer coatings for optoelectronics applications. Grouping of ops can be accomplished in accordance with their refractive in dex values and dispersion characteristics. High refractive index films of polymer nanocomposites. Synthesis of aliphatic polymers with high refractive index by photoinduced polyaddition of thiols to bifunctional allyl monomer containing tetrathiaspiro structure naoto aoyagi molecular engineering institute, kindai university, iizuka, fukuoka 820. Refractive index control is an essential technique for processing light by manipulating its speed and passage, and materials studies for pursuit of high low refractive index, abbes number wavelength dependence of the refractive index control and birefringence anisotropy of the refractive index control, etc. The refractive index of the polymer tio 2 hybrid film reached as high as 1. The current invention provides a method of forming a foldable intraocular having a high refractive index from a copolymer comprising a first monomer comprising an aryl acrylate or an aryl methacrylate.
Hybrid high refractive index polymer coatings brewer science. It measures the refractive index of the liquid, which changes according to. Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films. Scaling up of the operating frequency to the visible range has not. Semiconductors, such as zns, tio 2,zro 2, pbs and cds have ri typi. Research highlights high refractive index hybrid films featuring high tio 2 contents were fabricated. High refractive index polythiourethane networks with high. The refractive index of the prism has to be higher than that of the medium under measurement, as otherwise there will be no total internal reflection. The result shows that increasing the titania content in the hybrid nanocomposite thin films can significantly increase the refractive index. Apr 02, 2019 the most useful applications for polymer based high refractive index materials are as optical data storage, lenses, antireflective coatings and immersion lithography. In practice, the difference of refractive indexes has to be relatively high.
Us20070010883a1 water plasticized high refractive index. Sep 24, 2006 high refractive index ri materials are extremely important in many optical applications. The associated monomers are also available and can be used to synthesize polymers whose refractive index can be tailored. The polymers were obtained through a thermal initiation and polymerization process which yielded robust monolithic materials. Home technical library refractive index of polymers by index.
Standard refractive index measurements are taken at the yellow doublet sodium d line, with a wavelength of 589 nanometers. Intrinsic high refractive index polymers wiley online library. Designing highrefractive index polymers using materials. Polymers traditionally have relatively low refractive indices, but they can be raised to technologically useful values.
We show that key parameters of high refractive index hri polymers may be. High refractive index polymers by design thorben badur, christian dams, and norbert hampp, department of chemistry and material science center, philipps university marburg, hansmeerweinstr. The present work addresses a market demand for high refractive index nd coatings. As a testbed we have chosen hri polymers for ophthalmological. High refractive index polymers have been widely developed in recent years for their potential applications in advanced optoelectronic fabrications, such as high performance components for advanced display devices, encapsulants for lightemitting diode devices, microlens components for complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensors, plastic lenses for eyeglasses, and camera, pickup, and.
It was found that after treatment of such mixed metalcontaining polymer blend with h2s, the nanoparticles. Soluble, colorless polymers containing pendant diamondoid moieties adamantane and diamantane were synthesized and characterized. High refractive index films of znspvp nanocomposite by in. To address this issue, we have prepared two intrinsic high refractive index siloxanesulfide polymer networks via the piersrubinsztajn reaction and thiolene click chemistry based on readily available tetraethoxysilane teos.
A novel optical polymer with a high refractive index n 1. These solutions are stable up to 6 months under room temperature storage conditions and can be easily spincoated onto a desired substrate. Recently, polymers with very high content of ss bonds were proposed by char and pyun as very high refractive index polymer materials n. Preparation of high refractive index composite films based on. The new coatings are transparent and have refractive indices ranging from 1. High refractive index polymers waveguide materials sigma. The acrylate monomers are polymerized by a free radical polymerization to produce high refractive index crosslinked polymer films. Ultrahigh refractive index polymers in the visible. Abstract high refractive index ri materials are extremely important in many optical applications. We show that key parameters of high refractive index hri polymers may be accurately predicted based on the data of the hri group and the polymer backbone comprising the spacer s and polymerizable group pg. Both nanocomposite and intrinsic high refractive index polymers offer particular advantages and disadvantages.
High refractive index polymers for optical applications. Many materials have a wellcharacterized refractive index, but these indexes depend strongly upon the frequency of light. Kazuhiro nakabayashi, shigeki sobu, yuji kosuge and hideharu mori, synthesis and nanoimprinting of high refractive index and highly transparent polythioethers based on thiol. A novel higractive index episulfidethiol polymer for. Pdf high refractive index polymer coatings for optoelectronics. Transparent and highrefractive index thermoplastic polymer. Dec 23, 2009 sulfurcontaining acrylic monomers were developed for high refractive index. According to the calculation, to achieve nanocomposites with a refractive index of 1. Materials for high and low refractive index coatings sigma. Index matching silicone for high brightness led encapsulation. For index matching purposes, all dimethylpolysiloxanes have a refractive index of 1. The refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material. The measuring prism acts as the refractive index reference.
However, such a polymer does not exist and the highest refractive index in a polymer 8 at present is 1. High refractive index ri materials are extremely important in many optical applications. Us6635732b2 water plasticized high refractive index polymer. The refractive index of the nanocomposite can be further increased to 1. This is described by snells law of refraction, n 1 sin. Refractive indices of the synthesized oligomers were between 1. Besides the refractive index, optical dispersion abbe. Our in silico approach employs a series of quantitative. Phenyl silicone systems contain diphenyldimethylpolysiloxane co polymers. Hybrid high refractive index polymer coatings spie. The matrix of the hybrid films comprises titanium alkoxide andor epoxy resin. High refractive index polymer coatings for optoelectronics.
Sep 29, 2016 high refractive index nonresonant metamaterials have been experimentally demonstrated up to the terahertz frequency range 16,17. Morris, reza langari, in measurement and instrumentation second edition, 2016. Carbazole based polymers have demonstrated good optical, photo refractive, and chargetransporting properties, combined with ease of processing. Novel carbazole based methacrylates, acrylates, and. Incorporation of highnnanoparticles into polymers seems to be a more promising strategy to achieve a refractive index higher than 1. Of particular interest is the design of high refractive index polymers. The high refractive index is due, in large part, to the presence of the highly polarizable ps and pse groups, which have molar refractivities of. High refractive index polymers have been widely developed in recent years for their potential applications in advanced optoelectronic fabrications, such as high performance components for advanced display devices, encapsulants for lightemitting diode devices, microlens components for complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensors, plastic lenses for eyeglasses, and camera, pickup, and projector lenses. The refractive index of a polymer is based on several factors which include polarizability, chain flexibility, molecular geometry and the polymer backbone orientation. Higractive index acrylate polymers for applications. The refractometer is a wellestablished instrument that is used for measuring the water content of liquids. In addition to the polyfunctional zirconium and hafnium acrylates, we offer a range of high ri polymers based on aromatic and brominated aromatic monomers table 2, as well as low ri materials based on fluorinated monomers table 3. In the present paper, we describe a new and original method to obtain transparent, siloxanebased composites, with high refractive index up to 1.
A higractiveindex polymer hrip is a polymer that has a refractive index greater than 1. Siloxanebased polymer films obtained by the solgel process are often porous and exhibit low refractive indices. The method is based on the decomposition of znsiloxane, mixed with a polydimethylblockphenylsiloxane matrix in different ratios. The episulfide derivative of 9,9bis4glycidyloxyphenylfluorene, synthesized by the reaction of an epoxide and inorganic thiocyanate, reacts by a ringopening p. A high refractive index, foldable polymer suitable for use in ophthalmic devices, such as intraocular lenses, is provided. Development of thermoplastic nanocomposite optical materials.
Usa home product directory materials science organic and printed electronics photonic and optical materials waveguide materials high refractive index polymers materials science home materials science products. Polymers traditionally have relatively low refractive indices, but they. By reacting the phenol, aromatic diols, or aromatic thiols with 92,3epoxypropylcarbazole, the refractive index of the final polymer can be increased further. Oct 20, 2014 both nanocomposite and intrinsic high refractive index polymers offer particular advantages and disadvantages. When cured at elevated temperature, the hybrid polymer coating decomposes to form a metal oxiderich film that has a high refractive index. High refractive index polymers waveguide materials. New applications new requirements new products dow corning has developed a solid silicone encapsulant that delivers thermal stability compared with conventional silicones. Pdf rapid developments in advanced photonic devices have led to the increasing exploration of high refractive index highn materials. The second approach utilizes our discovery that polyimide materials possess naturally high refractive indices in comparison to most polymer materials. The required materials, resists and glass substrates, are available with refractive indices n 1.
Moderately high refractive index, low optical dispersion. Us5290892a flexible intraocular lenses made from high. Optically transparent polymers with high refractive index offer opportunities for. They also showed low transparency which makes them unsuitable for application in optical devices where thick films are required. Highly tunable refractive index visiblelight metasurface. The phenyl functionality boosts the refractive index of the polymers from 1. However, there is an enhanced focus on high refractive index hri for e. The polymer may be produced from a polymerization reaction of first, second and third monomeric components and a crosslinking agent. High refractive index copolymers comprised of monomers having the formula. View enhanced pdf access article on wiley online library html view download pdf for offline viewing. Five different hri groups and the corresponding siloxane and methacrylate homopolymers were considered in this work. Of particular interest is the design of high refractive index. Intrinsic high refractive index polymers macdonald.
A new class of high refractive index polymers was developed through the thiolene coupling reaction of trivinylphosphine chalcogenides, ch2ch. Unfortunately, these sulfurcontaining polymers with high refractive index were conceived following a complex and elaborated synthesis which along with their poor processability, inhibit their large scale production. Moreover, both siloxane sulfide polymer films are uniform and homogeneous with high optical transmittance of 90% for wavelength ranging from 400 to 2000 nm. High refractive indices have been achieved either by introducing substituents with high molar refractions to make intrinsic hrips or by combining high nnanoparticles with polymer matrixes to make hrip nanocomposites. High refractive indices have been achieved either by introducing substituents with high molar refractions to make intrinsic hrips or by combining high nnanoparticles with polymer matrixes to make hrip. Pdf high refractive index transparent nanocomposites. Rodlike polymers with repeat units composed of groups with high.
Ideally, the coating should combine the excellent durability and easy deposition of a spinapplied polymer coating with the high refractive index and optical clarity of a. We show that key parameters of high refractive index hri polymers may be accurately predicted based on. A high refractive index polymer hrip is a polymer that has a refractive index greater than 1. Schadlera received 5th july 2011, accepted 4th october 2011 doi.
The chemical structures of the synthesized acrylate monomers were determined by fourier transform infrared ftir and nuclear magnetic resonance nmr spectroscopic analyses. High refractive index polymers by design macromolecules. The refractive index is the ratio of light velocity of a specified wavelength in air to its velocity in the substance under evaluation. The objective of this research was to design, synthesize, and characterize high refractive index polymers and copolymers for use in. Inorganic materials that have high refractive indices and high transparency are to be considered, and transition metal oxides such as titanium dioxide or zirconium dioxide are among the best choices. Furthermore, they achieve high refractive indices of 1. Refractive index ri or n is of critical importance for photonics applications such as optical waveguides and ophthalmic devices. Our group has prepared ri tunable materials up to 1. Development of thermoplastic nanocomposite optical. In this range, the refractive index increases from 1. These data indicate that the new siloxane sulfide polymers have potential application as optical materials such as.
A machine learning strategy is presented for the rapid discovery of new polymeric materials satisfying multiple desirable properties. Our proprietary materials provide outstanding optical properties including a high index of refraction ranges between n 1. Mar 22, 2018 a composite coating having a high refractive index, high abbe number, low haze and high transmittance, suitable for fabricating nanoscale optical surface features includes a resin with a crosslinked polymer matrix having polymers with repeat units derived from acrylic or methacrylic monomers or oligomers and inorganic nanoparticles disposed. High refractive index polymers have been widely developed in recent years for their potential applications in advanced optoelectronic fabrications, such as high performance components for advanced.
High refractive index inverse vulcanized polymers for. We found a novel way to prepare sulfurcontaining uvcurable high nd oligomers of melamine and urethane acrylates. Rapid developments in advanced photonic devices have led to the increasing exploration of high refractive index high n materials, particularly higractiveindex polymers hrip. Carlos pinahernandez,1 khai lee,1 arian gashi,1 stefano. The index of polymer films increased with the number of sulfur atoms in the monomer structure. Hybrid nanocomposite thin film with refractive index value of 2. High refractive index polymer coatings for optoelectronics applications. Ideally, the coating should combine the excellent durability and easy deposition of a spinapplied polymer coating with the high refractive index and optical clarity. Pdf hybrid high refractive index polymer coatings tony. Our products include low index primary coatings cladding resins, which are used in the manufacturing of specialty optical fibers.
Based on their unique refractive index characteristics and good optical clarity, polymeric materials are also used as antireflective coatings for solar cells, displays and contact lenses. Us8470948b2 us12850,141 us85014110a us8470948b2 us 8470948 b2 us8470948 b2 us 8470948b2 us 85014110 a us85014110 a us 85014110a us 8470948 b2 us8470948 b2 us 8470948b2 authority us united states prior art keywords polymer structure composition carbon atoms refractive index prior art date 20090828 legal status the legal status is an assumption and is not a. Ideally, the coating should combine the excellent durability and easy deposition of a spinapplied polymer coating with the high refractive index and optical clarity of a vacuum deposited metal. Higractive index acrylate polymers for applications in. High refractive index and mechanical property, high abbes number and good thermal stability are general requirements for high refractive index polymers. The polymers tend to have a high crosslink density that varies with the composition but results in rigid materials for most compositions. Wilshire technologies high refractive index monomers. The refractive index is defined as the velocity of light in vacuum relative to the velocity in the polymer. Tio 2 nanocomposites with high refractive index and transparency peng tao,a yu li,b atri rungta,b anand viswanath,b jianing gao,a brian c.
Intrinsic high refractive index polymers macdonald 2015. By incorporating oxygen, sulfur, or sulfoxide groups into polymers, high refractive index polymers have been attained. Synthesis of aliphatic polymers with high refractive index. According to the lorentzlorenz equation , 14, the refractive index of polymers can be increased by introducing the substituents with high molar refraction and low molar volume as. Intrinsic high refractive index siloxanesulfide polymer.
When cured at elevated temperatures, the organometallic polymer decomposes to form a highly dispersed metal oxide phase that imparts high index properties to the final hybrid coating. Apr 04, 2005 thermally curable hybrid high refractive index polymer solutions have been developed. While nanocomposite high refractive index polymers have refractive indices above 1. The materials exhibited an unusual combination of moderately high refractive index with low optical dispersion. Inorganic materials that have high refractive indices and high transparency are to be considered, and transition metal oxides such as titanium dioxide. The specific refractive index increment dndc of dilute polymer solutions, measured in light scattering experiments, is needed in the determination of the molecular weight, and the size and shape of polymers in solutions. The results of this work provide new knowledge and a new pathway to design a polymer based high refractive index material.412 805 1274 1483 523 241 1404 89 1178 1358 1152 22 190 951 941 1548 484 706 939 1064 839 1429 916 467 915 72 200 1095 413 245 1416 1079